Effects of neo-colonialism on the O-Level History Education in Uganda
The study investigated the effects of Neo-colonialism on the O-level History Education in Uganda. The study was hinged on three specific objectives and these included; establishing the effects of Neo-colonialism on the O-Level History Education curriculum in Uganda, to investigate the effects of Neo-colonialism on the History Education policies at O-level in Uganda and to examine the effects of Neo-colonialism on the History Education management at O-level in Uganda. A descriptive cross-sectional survey research design was used in the study. A total sample population of 316 participated in the study which included 8 officials from National Curriculum Development Centre (NCDC), 4 District education officers from Gulu, Mbarara, Jinja and Kampala Capital City Authority, 8 policymakers and administrators from the Ministry of Education and Sports who were purposively selected respectively and 296 secondary school History teachers who were selected using simple random sampling technique. Data was collected using a self administered questionnaire, interview guide, documentary analysis guide, and observation checklist. The study findings showed that the current O-Level History Education curriculum in Uganda does not fully reflect the needs of the society in the following ways: The current O-Level History Education curriculum in Uganda is too westernized and portrays a colonial model for example, most History Education content is not skill based and thus not realistic in our society, the teaching methods, instructional materials and assessment strategies are outdate and portrays a colonial model that leads to high skyrocketing unemployment of the O-Level History Education graduates in Uganda. It was also found out that Neo-colonialism has a strong bearing on O-Level History Education policies like the language of instruction at O-Level and the Universal Secondary Education policies in Uganda are a cocktail of the colonial education policies that leads to metal control, poverty, un equal economies and cramming and memorization of the O–Level graduates in Uganda. It was also found out that most decisions and directives of History Education at O-Level in Uganda are arrived at with the advice of the industrialized nations which makes the O-Level History Education students study outside their context. It was therefore concluded that History Education curriculum, History Education policies and History Education management at O-Level in Uganda does not fully suit the needs of the local people because it is indirectly affected by Educational Neo-colonialism which makes the indigenous people benefit less compared to the developed countries. It was recommended that, History Education curriculum designers should emphasize skill development rather than the knowledge acquisition at O-Level in Uganda to avoid dependency syndrome. History Education policies that create dependency on textbooks, western educational expatriates and priorities from external sources that cannot be translated into locally relevant forms of History Education should be abandoned by education policy makers and encourage in-service training for History Education teachers that emphasize skill development. The government through effective education management at O-Level should carry out more workshops and sensitization seminars to equip educational administrators with History Education management skills in the field of planning, organization, staffing, controlling and monitoring that match with the needs of the society in order to reduce dependency syndrome on the industrialized countries.