Antifungal susceptibility patterns of vulvovaginal candida species among women attending antenatal clinic at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital, South Western Uganda.
Kiguli, James Mukasa
Kibuka, Livingstone Sserunkuma
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Aims: To identify the Candida species that cause vulvovaginal candidiasis and determine their antifungal susceptibility patterns. Study Design: This was a cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at the antenatal clinic of Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital in Mbarara Municipality, between December 2012 and February 2013. Methods: High vaginal swabs from 456 pregnant women were subjected to microscopy and culture on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar. Candida isolates were identified by the germ tube and Analytical profile index (API® Candida) tests. Susceptibility to fluconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole was determined by the Etest strips and for clotrimazole and nystatin by the disc diffusion method on Mueller Hinton agar supplemented with 2%w/v glucose and 0.5μg/ml methylene blue dye. Results: Of the 456 High vaginal swabs cultured, 207 grew Candida species. Species distribution was as follows: C. albicans (78.95%), C. glabrata (14.35%), C. krusei (3.35%), C. tropicalis (1.44%), C. famata (0.96%), C. parapsilosis (0.48%) and C. lusitaniae (0.48%). Resistance to nystatin was only observed in 0.61% of C.albicans. Resistance to clotrimazole was observed in 50%, 36.67% and 0.61% of C. famata, C. glabrata and C. albicans respectively. C. krusei showed a high resistance of 71.43% to fluconazole. C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. famata and C. lusitaniae exhibited 100% resistance to itraconazole. Resistance to voriconazole of less than 11% was exhibited by only C. albicans and C. glabrata. Conclusion: C.albicans was susceptible to most antifungal agents tested except itraconazole and voriconazole. All isolates were susceptible to nystatin except less than 1% of Candida albicans. Non-albicans demonstrated resistance to some drugs especially itraconazole. We recommend use of Nystatin for empirical management of vulvovaginal candidiasis among pregnant women.