Toxicity evaluation of the methanolic crude plant extract from Ipomoea Alba in rats
Kaweesa, Simon Peter
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Background: Ipomoea alba plays a significant role as a medicinal plant in the treatment of abdominal pains, syphilitic sores, irregular menstruations, burns and tumors, However little is still known about its toxicity. This study was carried out to investigate the toxicity profile of I.alba. Materials and Methods: Specimens of I.alba were collected, identified and extracted with methanol as described by (Cseke et al., 2006). Albino wistar rats were used as the experimental animals in the evaluation of the toxicity profile of the extract. The indices of toxicity evaluated included the LD50, haematological, biochemical and the histopathology. Results recorded as variables were reported as mean + SEM. Parametric student’s t-test was used to compare animals in the treated groups against the control groups. Statistically significant level was set at p<0.05. Results: Signs of toxicity were detected and the LD50 was calculated to be 11481 mg/kg per body weight. Biochemical parameters showed a significant increase in the creatinine levels as well as the liver enzyme (AST, ALT and ALP).The haematological parameters indicated a significant increase in the levels of both the mean platelet volume and the platelets while the histopathological parameters demonstrated toxicity changes on the liver and kidney tissues that included hepatocellular necrosis, centrilobular hepatic necrosis, degenerations, sinusoidal dilation, congestion and haemorrhage. Conclusion: The results attained from the biochemical and histopathological parameters of this study clearly showed that I.alba methanolic extract is toxic to both the liver and kidney.