Sonographic measurements of spleen and kidney sizes and their correlation with anthropometric measurements among healthy Makerere university students in Kampala, Uganda
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Introduction: Communicable and non-communicable disease manifestations affect the size of the spleen and kidneys. Ultrasound can provide vital information about changes in sizes, it is cheap and non-invasive. The normal sizes of the spleen and kidneys are unknown in Uganda for the adult population. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine sonographic spleen and kidneys sizes among healthy students in Makerere University Kampala District and correlate it with their anthropometric measurements. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. Spleen and renal ultrasound measurements were performed on 385 participants without known spleen and kidney pathology at Makerere University Hospital. The participants were students who had come for university registration between November 2019 and February 2020. Questionnaires were used to obtain demographic data from eligible study participants. An abdominal ultrasound scan was performed using a portable ultrasound machine (SIUI, Apogee 1000, and Guangdong China) to determine spleen (length and width) and kidney sizes which were also recorded. Measurement of maximum length and antero-posterior diameter of the kidneys were recorded. The Data was entered in epi-data and exported to STATA statistical software version 14 for analysis. Results: Three hundred and eighty five (385) participants were enrolled in the study, 226 (58.8%) were females. The median age of the participants was 21 years with an (interquartile range, IQR) of 20-23 years. The median (IQR) BMI was 21.3 (19.8-27.3). The median splenic length was 9.2cm with an interquartile range of 8.5-10cm. The right and left kidneys had a median length of 9.7, IQR (9.1-10.3) cm and 10.4cm IQR (9.8-10.9) cm right and left respectively. The splenic length and width positively correlated with; age of the participants, height and weight (p-value of <0.001). There no correlation between BMI and splenic measurements. Participants’ height and weight have a positive correlation with renal length at (p-value <0.001 and r of 0.291). Conclusion: The median splenic length was 9.2cm. The right and left kidneys had a median length of 9.7, IQR (9.1-10.10.3) cm and 10.4cm IQR (9.8-10.9) cm respectively. There was a positive correlation between spleen and kidney sizes with height and weight.