Evaluation of nutritional and antibacterial potential of ethnoveterinary remedies used in the management of chicken diseases in Butaleja District, Uganda
Onangole, John Echengu
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Ethno veterinary resources have gained significant value and are now a key remedy to human and livestock diseases. Uganda’s local community has been utilizing these resources since time immemorial. Butaleja is one famous district in Uganda known for traditional practices. It’s not known whether these remedies usually of plant origin are curative, immunoboosters or are nutritive. Questionnaire and interview guide were used to collect blunt data from 3 sub counties. 45 plants were identified and 15 were selected for investigation. Chicken is the most important bird in the community. The ping pong approach, laboratory analysis and PRA methods were used and 20 key informant interviews and 15 focus group discussions were conducted. Medicinal plants mentioned were identified and brought to the laboratory for antibacterial sensitivity and Nutrient investigation. Bio-assays were done and the test bacteria were streptococcus agalactiae, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureas and Escherichia coli. Media used was Mueller Hinton agar; MacConkey and Merck KGaA64271, Chromo cult, Brain heart infusion and Nutrient agar. Solvents used were petroleum ether, methanol and water. Nutrients investigated were vitamin Aand C also Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn, also crude protein. Nutritional analysis involved the weende system and standard AOAC methods. Local herbal preparation involved pounding, about 100g of plant material and mixed in 500mls of water then sieved. 5mls of extract was given to the chicken three times a day over 24hours. Diarrhea, cough, fever were the main ailments reported in chicken. Nutritional results showed that all 15 plants had protein at varying concentration ranging from 7.27-27.04%. The leaves of Albizia coriaria showed no protein at all. The highest amount of crude protein was found in Vernonia auriculifera which had 27.04 % and the lowest in roots of Carica papaya at only 7.27%. Chenopodium opulifoium had the lowest amount of vit.A (0.11mg/100g and piliostigma thonningi had the highest bamount of 1.27mg/100g. There was no vitamin C in Aloe vera, the lowest amount was in carica papaya only 0.03mg/100g, it was highest in Capsicum frutescence with 2.94mg/100g. The highest amount of manganese was found in Vernonia auriculifera with 0.76mg/100g and the lowest amount of manganese was found in with Caparis tomentosa 0.26mg/100g.The highest amount of Zinc was in Vernonia auriculifera with 0.45mg/100g and the lowest was found in Carica papaya at 0.15mg/100g. The highest amount of copper was in Chenopodium opulifolium at 0.43mg/100g and the lowest amount was in seven plants at 0.01mg/100g. Iron was the most abundant mineral in all the 15selected plants and the highest was in Carica papaya at 1.02mg/100g and the lowest in Aloe vera at 0.10mg/100g. The IZ of methanol extracts ranged from 3mm- 29mm. 7petroleum ether extracts didn’t inhibit any growth of bacteria out of 15 The IZ of pet.ether ranged from 12mm-20mm. 7 of the water extracts did not inhibit any growth and the water IZ ranged from 13mm-22mm. All water extracts had no effect on Salmonella typhimurium. Eschericia coli was inhibited by water extract of Capsicum frutescence. Staphylococcus aureas was most inhibited by the extracts from the medicinal plants as 8/15(57.7%) could inhibit growth. Streptococcus agalactiae was second to staphylococcus aureas as 4/15 (17.7%) 0f the plant extracts inhibited growth. Escherichia coli was quite resistant to the extracts as only 6/15 (13.3%) of the extracts inhibited bacterial growth. Salmonella typhimurium was the most resistant as only Albizia coriaria and Piliostigma thonningi with Capsicum frutescence 3/15 (20%) could inhibit growth of the test bacteria.