The potential use of beetroot (Beta vulgaris l.) Powder to complement dietary iron intake of adolescent school girls (10-19 years old)
Mubajje, Muhamad Shaban
MetadataShow full item record
Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is a problem among adolescent school girls (10-19 years) which, in addition to others also affects intellectual, learning capacity and eventual decline in academic performance. Beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) contains high amounts of biologically active substances and it has attracted much attention as a health promoting functional food. The study aimed at determining the potential use of beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) powder to complement Dietary iron intake in the management of anemia and iron deficiency in adolescent school girls aged 10-19 years. The two varieties studied were DetR and GrimG.The study was conducted using different drying techniques for boiled and raw beetroot samples of DetR and CrimG. Three drying techniques (Sun drying, Oven drying and Freeze drying) were used. The effect of drying technique on physico-chemical properties, sensory acceptability, bioavailability of iron and % contribution of the product to the RDA of adolescent school girls aged 10-19 years were determined. Beetroot samples (fresh and powder) from the two varieties were analysed and the values recorded. pH was measured using a pH-meter (Hanna instrument H12210) at room temperature (~25 °C). Water activity was measured using an Aqua lab water activity meter (Aqualab Series 3) with temperature compensation. Color values were measured using a Minolta color reader CR-10; Total phenolic content was determined by extraction using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent Assay. Total flavonoid content was determined using aluminium chloride spectrometric assay. Oxalate content was determined using the classical titrimetric method. Samples were digested in a solution containing 50% HNO3 and 30% H2O2 solutions for mineral (Iron) analysis,and then the digested samples analysed by microwave plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (4200 MP-AES). Mole ratio oxalate: Fe was used to estimate Fe bioavailability. Acceptability of the juices was rated using a 9-point hedonic scale from 1 (disliked extremely) to 9 (liked extremely). Significant differences (P˂0.05) were found between the two varieties for some characteristics including; pH, Vitamin C, Moisture content, Flavonoid content, Oxalate content) and minerals (Zinc, Iron and Calcium), Titratable acidity was 0.74% for CrimG and 0.57% for DetR, pH was 6.37 for CrimG and 6.17 for DetR, Vitamin was 3.64 mg/100g for CrimG and 3.17 for DetR, Water activity was 0.96 for both CrimG and DetR, the total phenolics content was 0.49 mg GAE 100mg-1DW for DetR and 0.46 mg GAE 100mg-1DW, Total flavonoids 1.14 mg CE 100 mg-1 DW for DetR and 0.88 mg CE 100 mg-1 DW, Total Oxalate was 9583.33mg/100g for DetR and 9166.67 for CrimG and Iron content was 7.23 mg/g for CrimG and 4.19 for DetR. Processing method reduced (TTA, Vitamin C, and water activity) and increased (titratable bulk density, colour values, water absorptivity and water solubility, mineral conten, xii phytochemical content). Boiling before sun drying resulted in the increase in the iron content and reduction in the inhibitory compounds Total phenolic, content, Total flavonoid content and Total oxalate content leading to improvement in the bioavailability. Results for bioavailability were ˂ 1.0 an index for prediction. The study results revealed that consumption of 50g of beetroot powder contributes to more than 30% RDA (iron) for adolescent school girls 10-19 years. Samples were well accepted with a mean score between 6 (like slightly) and 7 (like moderately). The Fe contributed by the product and its bioavailability indicates its potential to utilizion as a source of Fe in the management of iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) among adolescent school girls aged (10-19 years). Key words: beetroot, adolescent school girls, bioavailability, iron, sensory acceptability, iron deficience anaemia.