Early-onset versus late-onset HIV-related secondary mania in Uganda
Kiwuwa, Mpungu Steven
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Background: First-episode secondary mania in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has been described among samples of predominantly Caucasian, HIV-positive male patients in developed countries. Objective: The goal of this study was to compare the demographic and clinical characteristics of HIV-positive patients with early-onset and late-onset first-episode secondary mania in HIV infection. There were previous findings of an association between late-onset mania and severe cognitive impairment. Method: Subjects were HIV in-patients with clinically confirmed mania, who received standard demographic, psychiatric, physical, and laboratory assessments. Early-onset patients had CD4 cell counts > 200 mm3; late-onset patients had CD4 cell counts ≤ 200 mm3. Results: There were no demographic or cognitive differences between early-onset and late-onset mania patients, and high rates of psychotic symptoms in both groups. However, late-onset patients had more manic symptoms. Conclusion: Late-onset HIV mania patients had more severe psychopathology and, thus, demonstrated a greater need for highly active retroviral therapy.