Prevalence of beta-lactam and tetracycline residues in cow milk and factors associated with knowledge, attitudes and practices on the residues in Mbale district
Sakwa, Bernard Hillam
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Introduction Wide spread and indiscriminate use of antibiotics in the dairy industry creates a potential residue problem in milk and milk products that are consumed by the public. Human health problems that may result from intake of sub chronic exposure levels include allergic reactions in sensitive people, toxicity, carcinogenic effects as well as development and spread of antibiotic resistance. The presence of residues may result from failure to observe the mandatory withdrawal periods, illegal or extra-label use of drugs and incorrect dosage levels. The main objective was to determine the prevalence of antibiotic residues in cow milk as well as the factors associated with knowledge, attitudes and practices on residues in Mbale District. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from 1st January to 31st March, 2015 to detect antibiotic residues in cow milk. For quantitative methods, a semi-structured questionnaire was employed to obtain data on knowledge, practices and attitudes regarding antibiotic use and antibiotic residues while focus group discussions and key informant interviews were used to collect qualitative data. A total of 270 farmers were selected by simple random sampling while 174 milk samples were randomly sampled among the milk from the milk collection centers/vendors and tested for Beta-lactams and tetracycline using Snap Duo Beta-Tetra ST Test. Data was Analyzed using SPSS version 17 statistical computer package. Results The total number of respondents was 261 out which 144 (55.2%) were males and 117 (44.8%) were females. A total number of 174 milk samples were tested for presence of antibiotic residues using Snap Duo Beta Tetra ST test with resulting prevalence of 16.7%. The study revealed that 59% of farmers had low knowledge level, however; farmers had high level of attitude at 74.3% and good practices at 73.6%. From Multivariate analysis, carrying out farming as a fulltime job and having received training in dairy cow management were significantly associated with knowledge, attitudes and practices. Conclusion The study revealed a moderate prevalence of 16.7%. The study also revealed low knowledge level, high attitude level and good practices among farmers. Carrying out farming as a full time job and having received training in dairy cow management were significantly associated with knowledge, attitudes and practices.