Malaria is a leading cause of ill health and neuro-disability in children in sub-Saharan Africa.
Impaired cognition is a common outcome of malaria with neurological involvement. There is
also a possibility that academic achievement may be affected by malaria with neurological
involvement given the association between cognitive ability and academic achievement. This
study investigated the effect of malaria with neurological involvement on cognitive ability,
behaviour and academic achievement.
This prospective case-control study was carried out in Kampala City, Uganda between
February 2008 and October 2010. Sixty-two children with a history of malaria with
neurological involvement were followed up and given assessments for cognitive ability
(working memory, reasoning, learning, visual spatial skills and attention), behaviour
(internalizing and externalizing problems) and academic achievement (arithmetic, spelling
and reading) three months after the illness. Sixty-one community controls recruited from the
homes or neighbouring families of the cases were also given the same assessments. Tests
scores of the two groups were compared using analysis of covariance with age, sex, level of
education, nutritional status and quality of the home environment as covariates. This study
was approved by the relevant ethical bodies and informed consent sought from the caregivers.
Children in the malaria group had more behavioural problems than the community controls
for internalizing problems (estimated mean difference = -3.71, 95% confidence interval (CI),
= -6.34 to -1.08, p=0.007). There was marginal evidence of lower attention scores (0.40, CI
= -0.05 to 0.86, p=0.09). However, excluding one child from the analyses who was unable to
perform the tests affected the attention scores to borderline significance (0.32, CI, = 0.01 to 0.62, p=0.05). No significant differences were observed in other cognitive abilities or in
academic achievement scores.
Malaria with neurological involvement affects behaviour, with a minimal effect on attention
but no detectable effect on academic achievement at three months post discharge. This study
provides evidence that development of cognitive deficits after malaria with neurological
involvement could be gradual with less effect observed in the short term compared to the long term.||en_US