Assessing the effectiveness of energy audits in institutions of higher learning in Uganda : a case study of Makerere and Kyambogo Universities
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This study assessed the effectiveness of energy audits in institutions of higher learning in Uganda using Makerere and Kyambogo Universities as case studies. The study was guided by four objectives which included assessing the types of energy audit adopted, examining the effectiveness of energy audits, identifying the challenges encountered in adopting the energy audits and suggesting possible solutions to challenges encountered in adopting the energy audits. The study used cross sectional research design with a sample size of 62 respondents from Makerere University and 51 respondents from Kyambogo University. However, 51 respondents and 43 respondents from Makerere University and Kyambogo University respectively managed to respond back. Data was collected from both primary and secondary sources while using questionnaires and interview guides. The study revealed that both Makerere University and Kyambogo University have adopted several types of energy audit process include conducting special audits, analysing energy consumption data. The study also disclosed that to a larger extent, effectiveness of energy audits are realised in both universities in through: rational allocation of energy source centres, easy identification of areas that need improvement, and recommendation of other sources of energy. However, energy expenditure bills and energy consumption levels are still high. It was also noted that some challenges are encountered while adopting energy audits and these include lack of technical skills in energy auditing, high costs involved in the energy audit process, poor monitoring & supervision and poor information quality regarding energy auditing. Lastly, the study revealed that having in place technical skilled manpower, putting in place energy audits policies & systems, rewarding staff members who promote energy auditing processes and culture, and sensitizing staff on the importance of energy auditing reduces challenges encountered in adopting and implementing energy audits. The study recommended that institutions should install occupancy sensors and photo electric sensors, since there is no operator involvement thus the factor of human error is taken care of, establish the energy management section with a full time dedicated energy manager and staff who shall coordinate and organize training of all stakeholders, reviewing the institutions’ energy policy frameworks to engrave the culture of energy saving to every stakeholders and lastly Uganda should accelerate the development of renewable energy resources especially geothermal and solar energy in order to solve the high cost issues associated with hydro-power electricity and fuel usage.