Nutrition status and associated factors among children aged 6 to 59 months in Bussi Island, Wakiso District
Nsubuga, Edirisa Juniour
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Background: Child malnutrition remains a global challenge with rural and hard to reach areas of low and middle income countries being the most affected as a result of its effects like weakened immunity and increased risk of death, and yet the nutrition status and associated factors among children on Island areas which are unique settings as compared to the mainland areas, particularly on Islands in developing countries like Bussi Island in Uganda is not known. Objective: The general objective of the study was to assess the prevalence of under nutrition and associated factors among children aged 6 to 59 months in Bussi Island. Methods: A cross-sectional survey that used quantitative and qualitative methods was done. A total of 409 households and 409 caretaker-child pairs of children aged 6 to 59 months were got. Each village was assigned a sample size depending on the number of households with children aged 6 to 59 months in it and within each village the households were selected by simple random sampling using ENA-SMART generated random numbers and only one child was randomly selected for anthropometric assessment by balloting. A face to face interviewer administered pre-tested questionnaire that had sections on child dietary intake, child health status, child characteristics, household food insecurity status, health system factors, WASH factors, socio-demographic/economic factors and nutrition status of children was used. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate analyses were done using ENA-SMART and STATA software. Logistic regression was used for determining the factors associated with wasting as modified poisson regression was used to determine the factors associated with stunting and underweight at bivariate and multivariate analysis levels. Variables with p-values of ≤0.2 at bivariate analysis were inputs in the multiple logistic and modified poisson regression models to generate Adjusted Odds Ratios and Adjusted Prevalence Ratios respectively. Strengths of associations were measured at 95% confidence intervals. Six Focus Group Discussions using the approved guide with saturation point of information in consideration were conducted. After which the qualitative and quantitative findings were triangulated. Results: The prevalence rates of wasting, stunting and underweight among children were 7.8%, 29.8% and 16.1% respectively. The independent predictors of wasting were having more than two children aged less than five years and growing food for home consumption while those for stunting were utilisation of more than 80 litres of water in a day, receiving of deworming tablets every six months by children, household food insecurity, age of children 12 to 35 months and suffering from diarrhoea as those for underweight were having more than nine household members, age of children 24 to 35 months and suffering from diarrhoea. Conclusions: The prevalence rates of wasting and underweight were higher than the national levels, however, that of stunting was similar. Interventions such as integrating nutrition status assessment into immunisation and health facility activities, construction of more Boreholes, promotion of family planning and backyard farming are required.