Investigating Causes of Unreliability of Water Supply and Inadequate Sanitation Facilities in Kitgum Municipality
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This study aimed at finding the main causes of unreliable water supply, and the health effects of unreliable water supply in Kitgum Municipality with a view of devising strategies that can be used to increase water supply and adequate sanitation in the Municipality. The researcher used a sample of 96 participants using of convenience sampling technique. Using data collection techniques of literature review, document analysis the researcher administered questionnaires and interviews to collect data about the water supply, sanitation and general hygiene statuses’ in the community. The study was triggered by growing public concerns on lack of reliable water supply in the Municipality due to power outages and breakdowns of operation systems such as pumps and generators. The response time for rectification of such failures takes long as the man power in charge of carrying out remedial measures have multiple and emergency tasks to respond to in various and far distant towns in the entire of Ugandan northern region under operation of National Water and Sewerage Corporation Organization. The study eventually found out that water supply was unreliable and sanitation standard did not meet national standards. It further found out that the health of residents was gravely affected. These revelations are attributed to high population growth rate, technical challenges in finding sources that are large enough to serve the population in need. The researcher further recommends that the Ugandan government through her line ministries should have long strategic plans to achieve both improved water quality by reducing pollution, eliminating dumping and minimizing release of hazardous chemicals and materials; and access to adequate and equitable hygiene and sanitation on behalf of the service for all and end open defecation, paying special attention to the needs of women and girls and those in vulnerable situations by 2030. With all the above recommendations in place before 2030, then A safe, reliable, affordable, and easily accessible water supply is essential for good health, but for several decades almost one billion people in developing countries have lacked access to such a supply (Hunter, 2010). Finally, Proper sanitation is crucial for public health as it prevents the bacteria, viruses, and parasites found in excrement from infecting water, soil, and food. Access to safe water and sanitation can quickly turn problems into potential- unlocking education, work opportunities and improved health for women, children and families across the world. The need for better sanitation in the developing world is clear as indicated by as many as forty percent of the world’s population (2.5 billion people) practice open defecation or lack adequate sanitation facilities, and the consequences can be devastating for human health as well as the environment. Even in urban areas, where households and communal toilets are more prevalent, over two million people use toilets connected to septic tanks that are not safely emptied or use other systems that discharge raw sewage into open drains or surface waters.