Anticipated user experience (Aux) framework for implementing electronic participation in a developing country context
Although citizen participation in decision-making has emerged as one of the fundamental pillars of good governance, there is seemly a low level of citizen participation in the governance processes in many developing countries. Yet, it is difficult to envisage lasting solutions if the citizens directly affected do not take part in the decision process. Citizen participation is, therefore, a pressing requirement, enabling countries to determine for and by themselves ways to overcome their biggest challenges. In the quest for more effective and efficient government service delivery, a number of citizen participation mechanism have been fronted. The use of ICTs to engage government is one of the major approaches suggested, always referred to as Eparticipation. However, whereas E-participation would improve citizen participation, studies show that the major challenges of implementing E-participation in developing countries are the negative perceptions and responses towards E-participation, which is largely influenced by four major factors namely; Political, Social, Economic and Technological related challenges. Perceptions and responses towards the use of a computing product are referred to as User Experience (UX), a field in Human-Computer Interaction. ISO defines UX as the perceptions and responses that arise during the use of a product or service, or/and perceptions and responses that arise before a product or service is used (referred to as Anticipated UX or AUX). UX has been under extensive study over the last decade, generating a number of UX models and frameworks. Ideally, any UX model or framework could be used to influence positive perceptions and responses towards the use of mobile phones for voting. However, the existing UX models and frameworks provide very little on how experience before use (AUX) can be achieved. Many of the models and frameworks majorly focus on how user experience during use of a product or service can be achieved. There was a need to develop an Anticipated User Experience framework for influencing positive perceptions and responses towards Eparticipation in a developing country context We used literature review to establish requirements for influencing positive perceptions and responses towards E-participation in a developing country context. Using mobile phone voting as a case for E-participation, the requirements were validated using a survey study. The validation results from the survey study show that the requirements can influence positive perceptions and responses towards E-participation to a considerable extent. We used design science to extend Yogasara AUX framework. The new AUX framework contributes to theory in that the AUX gap in UX was identified and largely narrowed. The new AUX framework also demonstrates how an established Theory in Psychology like Cognitive Psychology Theory can be used to explain in practical terms- how AUX occurs, an approach that had not been used before. The AUX framework further contributes to practice by providing more practical guidance on how to achieve AUX at a product/service level.