Dietary and lifestyle factors associated with blood pressure control among adult hypertensive patients under care at Kiruddu hospital
Nakalega, Annet Patience
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Introduction: Hypertension is an important worldwide public-health challenge because of its high prevalence and for being a risk factor for cerebrovascular, cardiovascular and chronic renal disease. Despite these risk factors, there is poor blood pressure control among hypertensive patients. In order to achieve controlled blood pressure, patients need to modify and comply with recommended diet and lifestyle factors. This study determined the proportion of hypertensive patients with uncontrolled blood pressure and dietary, lifestyle and clinical factors associated with blood Pressure control among hypertensive patients under care at Kiruddu hospital. Methods: This was a cross sectional study design employing quantitative methods. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 271 adult hypertensive patients. Outcome variable was blood pressure control. Data was entered into Epidata and then analyzed using STATA. At bivariate analysis, chi-square and fishers’ exact tests were used to test for independent associations with BP control and then logistic regression was carried out. Odds ratio and a p value of less than 0.05 was used to determine statistical significance. Results: The mean age of study participants was 57 years (SD ± 0.76 years), with female dominance (77.9%). Among the study participants, 121 (44.7%) had uncontrolled BP. Dietary factors that remained significantly associated with uncontrolled blood pressure with adjusted OR (95%CI) included consumption of raw salt: 4.18 (1.32-13.24) and inadequate fruit consumption (less than 7 days/week): 2.18 (1.26-3.75) while clinical factors included being overweight: 2.51 (1.27-4.95) and poor adherence to anti hypertensive medications prescribed: 1.82 (1.03-3.21). Conclusion: The study revealed that the proportion of hypertensive patients with uncontrolled BP is high (44.7%). Consumption of raw salt, inadequate fruit consumption being overweight and poor adherence to anti hypertensive medication were significantly associated with uncontrolled BP. To effectively control blood pressure, a multi-professional approach comprising of clinicians, nutritionists and counsellors is relevant to develop strategies for dietary, lifestyle modifications and adherence counseling.