Governance and human security in Uganda: a case study of Uganda Police Force providing security in Kampala
Tukahirwa, Kosia Kankore
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The study sought to examine the concept of governance and human security in Uganda focusing on Uganda Police as an institution providing security in Kampala. Uganda in general and Kampala in particular was faced with a wave of spontaneous state inspired insecurities after the overthrow of Obote 1 government by Gen. Amin, in 1971. This nature of violence and human security challenges spread through the 1970s to 1980 when relative peace returned to the city with 2nd Obote government. This peace was enjoyed for a short time as arrests and detention without trial, which was a new dimension of insecurity started during 2nd Obote government. The period between 1986 and 2001 Ugandans experienced yet another period of relative peace with some isolated cases of riots, demonstrations, fire outbreaks and robberies, in the city. This research therefore focused on the period 2002 and 2012, a period that has experienced an increase in governance and human security challenges in Kampala city. This research was guided by three specific objectives, namely (i) to find out how participation of the communities (community policing) affects human security, ii) to analyze the relationship between Police accountability and human security, and (iii) to examine the relationship between Police responsiveness and human security in Kampala city. A sample of eighty respondents was surveyed. Both primary and secondary data were used. Interviews and Questionnaires were used as main data collection tools and methods for the study. Data was processed by Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS) computer program and results were analysed using content descriptive technique. The findings in summary indicated that the media, education and rank of Police of officers were the main factors affecting community policing. Results further show that the nexus between Police and civil society is not fully cemented with good coats due to poor image portrayed in both sides basing on unlawful and acts of indiscipline as portrayed by Police officers during demonstrations. The study also noted that militarization of the Police was contrary to Article 211(d) of the Constitution of Uganda which states that the Uganda Police Force is supposed to cooperate with civilian authority and other security organs established under the supreme law of the land. The study concluded that relationship between the Police and the civilian population has to be improved if human security concerns are to be addressed. The militaristic approaches in attempt to provide human security have instead exacerbated gross abuse of human rights and loss of vision on good governance tenets like accountability, participation and responsiveness. Therefore, the study recommended that the Police Force must find ways of improving its image and customer care through aggressive marketing of its programmes in entire communities of Kampala and that there is need to recruit volunteers to help in the community policing drive.