Wetland utilization and conflicts in Mukono urban area
The study was conducted to establish the way wetlands in Mukono Urban Area are being utilized and the conflicts that arise out of those land use activities within the different authorities like Mukono Local Council, Wetland Inspection Division (WID)and National Environment Management Authority (NEMA).Secondly, the study was aimed at collecting and documenting wetland information that relates to wetland resource use, management, land use change, tenure systems and conflict resolution in the urban area and all this was achieved through the 152 questionnaire responses, field excursions and observations. Research was conducted within the urban wetland areas of Goma, Nama, Nakisunga subcounties and Mukono Town Council which included; Kiwanga – Seeta, Kalunga, Lwajali – Njogezi, Kame, Nakawolole, Namumira and Katikolo wetlands with a total are coverage of 308.34ha. Several methods were employed to achieve the objectives which included; aerial photographic interpretation, field observations with the local leaders of the study area. It was found out that most of the changes in wetlands are as a result of same activities that generate goods or products that are of high demand in urban areas for instance bricks for construction of houses, subsistence agriculture for production of food, eucalyptus tree plantations for fire wood and pole production and car washing for generation of incomes more specifically among the youth. Brick making occupied 10.90 ha (3.53%), housing occupied 8.35 ha (2.72%), subsistence farming covered 48.64 (15.77%), and car washing covered 0.29 ha (0.09%). However, some activities like brick making seem to cover smaller areas than farming though they are more destructive than the rest of the activities. Regarding impacts of wetland use, this depicted strong effects of farming and the brick making industry. Brick making coupled with excavation of clay and sand have had the most profound effect on the study wetlands, holes (soil structure destroyed) 62%, fertility loss 28%, drying up 5%, vegetation loss 3% and pollution 2% (figure 4.3). Regarding ownership and use conflicts in the wetlands, it was found out that conflicts were categorized broadly into 3 major groups; inter institutional conflicts, institutions to individual conflicts and conflicts amongst individuals.