Water quality management in Kakira catchment area, Jinja District - Uganda
In order to replenish soil nutrients and as a means of increasing yields, the use of agrochemicals has gained popularity but their use is associated with environmental degradation. In this regard, a study to access the effect of the Kakira Sugar Works Limited sugarcane estate on the water resources of Lake Victoria and River Nile was carried out. Water samples were collected from five sampling sites (one sampling site-S4 was located on a stream draining through the out growers’ field to enable comparison with the KSWL estate) for six months over two seasons (wet and dry) and these were tested for physic-chemical parameters. Temperature values at all the sampling sites were <350C. pH values at all the sampling sites were within the range of 6.0-8.5 except S4 (pH=5.9) which was located in the outgrowers’ field. EC values on the stream draining through the workers settlement was high (1412.3 µS/cm) compared to the other sampling sites which had values <300 µS/cm. NH4-N and TN values at all the sampling sites were <10 mg/1. Although TP and O-PO4-P values for all the streams were within standards recommended by the National Environment (Standards for Discharge of Effluents onto Water or on Land Regulations) of 1999 for Uganda, the sampling sites including the one located at the lake didn’t qualify to be categorized as being pristine. Nutrient loads were higher during the wet season than outgrowers’ field. In spite of the fact that nutrient concentrations were within permissible limits, it was concluded that annual nutrient loads of nitrogen and phosphorus could affect the trophic levels of L. Victoria and R. Nile.