Functionality of rural water supply sources: a case study: Nyero Sub-County, Kumi District.
Macheri, Robert Jackson
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The research study assessed functionality of rural water supply sources in Nyero sub-county Kumi district. The study identified the rural water supply sources in use, the institutions and stakeholders involved in the provision and maintenance of these sources. The study found out the impacts of rural water supply sources to the community and the environment. The methods of data collection included; observation, interview, questionnaire, focus group discussions and documentary review. The sources of water supply to the community were spring wells 38.2 %, boreholes 25 %, shallow and deep wells 24.3 %. The government was the leading provider of water to this community at 36.8%. Provision from community initiatives was 34 % of the sources and 15.3 % by private individuals. Of the water sources constructed, 64.5% were not functional and only 35.4 % functional. Non functionality of the water systems was established to be attributed to low water table 6.6 %, technical faults 10 %, poor operation and maintenance 40.7 %, lack of trained and active water committees 30 %, community initiative 3.3 %, literacy and sensitization 3.3 % and poor siting 6.6 %. Community participation was low in the provision of water supply sources with 40%. There were no steering committees formed and trained to take over and spear head the management of the water supply sources after completion and where they were in existence they were non functional. Involvement of the community in planning of water supply sources was at 11%, management 32.2% and maintenance 29.9%. Sustainability of water supply sources was established at 51.4% which was measured in terms of availability. Due to water shortages, 26.9% of the community resort to unclean water sources as an alternative. It was established that 24.7% of the population of Nyero were at the risk of water related diseases and annual deaths. Long distances were walked by the community to water sources, less than 1km 45.7%, 1 to 2kms 45.2%, 2 to 3kms 10.2% and 3km 9%.