The conflict between investors and local people over fishing sites in Kalangala District.
Atwagala, Donnah S.
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The study was carried out in the selected islands in Kalangala District: Banda and Kitobo islands. The main objective of the study was to examine the conflict that existed between the Investors and local people over fishing sites in Kalangala District. Specifically the study aimed at establishing the nature of conflict, the causes of the conflict and assessed the challenges faced by Investors and local people. The systematic study focused on the steps to be under taken to establish the nature, causes and challenges of the existing conflict between the said Kalangala people and the Investors. In this regard the study generated and provided facts about the existing conflict. Such a study will be beneficial because government will use this information to intervene before it spreads to other parts of the district. Besides that, the study identified areas of weakness which will work as a foundation for improvement on the policy, for decision makers and civil society organizations in Uganda. The study was conducted through a cross section survey among the fishing community of Kalangala district. The design comprised of the qualitative aspect. This approach enabled the researcher to obtain information, practical perceptions and opinion on the topic under investigation. The design involved observation, description and interpretation of conditions that existed in the fishing communities. Qualitative design explained and gained insight and understanding of phenomena through intensive collection of narrative data. The researcher adopted a random and purposive sampling design for the sample selection. The study was guided by research questions in relation to the set objectives. The study applied Questionnaires, interview schedules and focused group discussions as the primary instruments of data collection. The findings were then tabulated into frequencies and percentages which were verbally explained. The study was guided mainly by Human needs theory that explains the causes of conflict in the society. Human needs theorists like John. W. Burton and Abraham Maslow argue that one of the primary causes of protracted, social conflict or intractable conflict is people's unyielding drive to meet their unmet needs on the individual, group, and societal level. The study identified the causes of the conflict related to refusing people from farming, fishing, cutting trees for both building and firewood, refusing local people to extend to NEMA reserved areas by shifting to other areas and generally the poor relationship between the Investors and the community in the islands. The study established the effects of the conflict on the development of district, Investors, and the local people. The effects identified included,; limited space for fishing, lack of food for the local community, no permanent accommodation structures on the islands, people left the islands, reduced tax base of the district, some children dropped out from school. However, the conflict had some few positive effects which included some people got casual jobs, it exposed the islands to other parts of the country and that is how the researcher got interested in the topic. In conclusion therefore, foreign investment can provide key resources for agriculture more especially fishing, including development of needed infrastructure and expansion of livelihood options for local people. If large-scale land acquisitions cause land expropriation or unsustainable use and displacement of local people, however, foreign investments in agricultural land can become politically and economically unacceptable. It is therefore in the long-run interest of Investors, host governments like Uganda, and the local people involved ensuring that these arrangements are properly negotiated, practices are sustainable, and benefits are shared. The study recommended that the government laws and land polices should be revised to clearly state how the Investors are to handle the local people on the leased land as it is indicated in the Land Act of 1998 that foreign Investors cannot own land but can get long term lease. This helps all the stakeholders who are involved in resolving such conflicts and also reducing the accuracy of conflict between the local people and Investors in Uganda.