Challenges of leadership styles in Forum for Democratic Change (FDC) and National Resistance Movement (NRM) political organizations in Kanungu District, Uganda (2005-2012)
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The study explored the challenges of leadership styles in Forum for Democratic Change (FDC) and National Resistance Movement (NRM) political Organizations of Uganda, using Kihiihi Town Council - Kanungu District as the case study. The study set to establish: dominant leadership styles of Forum for Democratic Change and National Resistance Movement, the effect of leadership styles used by FDC and NRM, and strategies for proper functioning of the selected political Organizations in Kanungu District. Contingency theories of leadership were specifically used to establish whether the subject under investigation concurred with them. The researcher gathered primary data using interviews and questionnaires while secondary data was obtained through analyzing the available literature from books, reports and journals. The study consisted of 96 respondents who were selected using both stratified and purposive sampling techniques. The study established that visionary, coercion, participative, transformational and delegation of authority were some of the leadership styles used by political organizations in Uganda. Defection to other political parties, increased involvement of party members in decision making, community development, promotion of transparency, popular participation, fluctuations in membership, intrigue development and improved women participation, were some of the effects of leadership styles used. Accordingly, promotion of clear information flow, mutual understanding, relationship oriented leadership style, accountability, honesty, constitutionalism and understanding of peoples interests were established as the strategies for proper functioning of political organizations The researcher recommended from the study that there should be mutual arrangements on common good by political parties, sensitization and mobilization of the communities, deployment of political party agents, continuous civic education, promotion of tolerance, respect for national and party constitutions, an end to commercialization of politics and funding of political parties as areas that need emphasis for political parties in Uganda to play the expected role of promotion of democracy. From the study, one need to understand that for any political party to be successfully managed, a number of leadership styles have to be carefully chosen and employed. Leaders must know that the leadership style chosen bear significant effect on both the led and the party. To positively manage the effects of leadership styles, political parties need to adopt a number of strategies while fully aware that challenges never cease to emerge and hence the need for dynamic leadership. To this effect, the researcher makes several recommendations which the he hopes once adopted can improve the current leadership situation experienced by political parties in Uganda.