A comparative assessment of the conventional and the community based system of solid waste management in Kisenyi II Parish, Kampala District
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Introduction: Worldwide, solid waste management (SWM) is a challenge to many urban areas and concerns related to it continue to grow. In Uganda, SWM is the responsibility of local governments and Kampala City Council (KCC) is mandated to collect and dispose of solid wastes in Kampala district. Kampala City Council is implementing the conventional system of SWM and has a collection rate of only 35%. Large and small private enterprises that were licensed as a means of improving SWM only account for 10% of solid wastes (SW) collected. The inadequate collection of the private providers stirred some of the neglected communities at Local Council (LC1) level to come up with community based schemes to manage their wastes. However, there is no evidence to show the effect of the Community Based Solid Waste Management (CBSWM) groups on rate of SW collection and disposal in the district. Objective: To compare the implementation of the conventional system and community based waste management systems within the communities in Kisenyi II parish in order to generate evidence that will be adopted to improve waste management in other Divisions of Kampala District. Methodology: A comparative cross sectional study involving 202 households was carried out in Kisenyi II parish. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used to collect data from the household heads, KI and FDGs. SPSS computer programme and master sheet analysis methods were used to analyze quantitative and qualitative data respectively. Frequencies, proportions were used for comparison. Relative risks and confidence intervals were analysed and a p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The socio-demographic characteristics showed a significant difference in level of education and housing standards with p-value of 0.005 and < 0.001 respectively. A bigger percentage using the CSW had attained secondary school education and above and were sleeping permanent houses compared to those in the CBSWM. Over 75% of the respondents using both systems of SWM had sufficient knowledgeable on the system of SW in their area. There was a significant difference in attitude with a p-value of <0.001 and RR of 7.78, where 86% of the CBSWM system had a positive attitude and appreciated their system compared to 14% of the Conventional Solid Waste Management (CSWM). Users of the CSWM system generated more wastes 86% compared to 74% of CBSWM and the difference was statistically significant with a p-value of 0.0276 and RR of 1.56. The size and type of storage containers and methods were observed to be similar in both systems of SWM. The collection rate in the CBSWM was better at 51% compared to 33% in the CSWM and the difference was statistically significant with a p-value of 0.0129 and RR of 1.42. Final disposal was similar because both systems disposed off their wastes in Kiteezi landfill. Institutional factors such as non-operational policies, political interference, population increase and insufficient funding were highlighted to affect operations in both systems. Infrastructural arrangements such as poor road networks, few SW disposal trucks that are in poor mechanical condition, poor housing plans were reported to affect both systems. Conclusions: The CBSWM was comparatively better implemented than the CSWM system because its users had a positive attitude and appreciated it. The collection rates were found statistically significant better in comparison to CSWM system. Recommendations: Kampala City Council should promote and support the CBSWM system by sensitizing the public on operating policies, collaborate with the central government to increase funding to the sector and improve infrastructure.