Interventions to manage dual practice among health workers (Review)
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Background Dual practice, whereby health workers hold two or more jobs, is a common phenomenon globally. In resource constrained low- and middle-income countries dual practice poses an ongoing threat to the efficiency, quality and equity of health services, especially in the public sector. Identifying effective interventions to manage dual practice is important. Objectives To assess the effects of regulations implemented to manage dual practice. Search methods Databases searched included: The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) 2011, Issue 4, part of The Cochrane Library. www.thecochranelibrary.com, including the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) Group Specialised Register (searched 26 May 2011); MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations May 24, 2011 (searched 26 May 2011); MEDLINE, Ovid (1948 to May week 2 2011) (searched 26 May 2011); EMBASE, Ovid (1980 to 2011 week 20) (searched 26 May 2011); Science Citation Index and Social Sciences Citation Index, ISIWeb of Science (1975 to present) (searched 04 December 2009); LILACS (searched January 2010); and AIM (December 2009) (searched 18 December 2009). Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials, non-randomized controlled trials, controlled before-and-after studies and interrupted-time-series studies. Dual practice was defined as holding more than one job. Studies for inclusion were those focusing on interventions to manage dual practice among health professionals employed in the public health sector. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently applied the criteria for inclusion and exclusion of studies when scanning the identified titles and abstracts. The same two review authors independently screened full reports of selected citations. At each stage, results were compared and discrepancies settled through discussion.