Flood management in urban centers in South Sudan: a case study of Juba City.
Duku, George Agrey
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Flood is one of the facets of hydro meteorological cycle that tend to affects human activities disproportionately, it occurs when a rising and overflowing water encroaches dry land, a natural phenomenon which occurs in almost every country in the world. Floods are common and widespread natural hazards and are weather related hazards and their patterns are likely to be significantly affected by climate change. It caused loss of human life and damage to property and infrastructure. Among all the natural disasters in the World, floods caused more economic losses than any other. Though many Floods Management methods have been developed and used to prevent floods from occurring, floods still occur with devastating effects. Each flood that occurs causes a huge loss of infrastructure and lives. The theory of Urban Resilience to Flood presents an interesting insight into how communities that live in flood-prone areas developed coping mechanisms to resist the adverse effects of floods. It further urges policymakers to avoid the use of hard engineering strategies to manage floods. These hard engineering infrastructures when collapse, the downstream community bears the brunt of the flood water that cascades downstream. The respondents Strongly Agreed (SA) and Agreed (A) with the following questions below as flood management practices in Urban Center: On the use of sand bags to block water from entering into buildings, 90%. The evacuation method, relocation of people living in flood prone areas to higher ground, 80%. Use of storage tanks to store rooftop water was the third best floods management method being practiced in Juba City with 78%. Flat areas like parks and playground are left bare to allow water infiltrate into the ground was the fourth best floods management method being practiced in Juba City with 65%. The respondents Strongly Agreed (SA) and Agreed (A) with the following questions below as probable causes of flood in Urban Center: Over population in the City that has forced people to build on floodplain with 85%. Improper town planning, allocating people plots on wetland was the second best with 82%. The terrain of the City is generally flat causing water to stagnate was the third best with 81%. The respondents Strongly Agreed (SA) and Agreed (A) with the following questions below as Impact of floods in Urban Center: Flooding of toilet facilities and lack of sanitary facilities was rated the first impacts of flood occurrence in Juba City of South Sudan with 82%. Injury and spread of infectious diseases was rated the second with 74%. It caused damage to homes, houses and shops was rated the third with 71%. Mobility constraints was rated the fourth with 70%. Damage of roads infrastructure was rated the fifth with 69%. The respondents Strongly Agreed (SA) and Agreed (A) with the following questions below as possible strategies to manage floods in Urban Center: Construction of dykes, earth embankment that prevents cascading flood from inundating dry land was rated the first with 84%. Widening of the existing water channel with 76%. Avoid building on wetlands with 75%. Tolerate floods by creating high places on which to put their most critical valuables with 74.8%. The bio data findings collected from the respondents in the area indicated a high level of unemployment. 79% of the respondents were unemployed, jobless. This was contributory factor that has made the people living in the flood prone area be so hesitant to leave the place. They have no jobs that would give money to purchase plot of land in higher areas. The respondents were further asked about their level of education, 48% of the respondents completed secondary school, 37% completed primary school whereas 15% of the respondents completed tertiary institutions, these findings corroborate the findings in question of employment. 79% of the respondents were unemployed. The findings above correlate well with the theory of Urban resilient to floods, the people in these areas have endure the hardship that comes with flood, once the floods water have receded, they go back to their normal ways of live. Poverty could be the major driving factor for people to continue staying in flood prone areas.