Determinants of school dropout under Universal Primary School Education (UPE) in Uganda: a case study of Iganga District
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The study investigated the causes of Iganga district UPE dropout rates for boys and girls reportedly at 10 percent and 15 percent respectively in 2004. One wondered what the source of the problem could be. One major suspect was the unfavorable household conditions from which the child comes; a concern which this study investigated. A field survey was conducted on UPE dropouts and survivors in both urban and rural Iganga, followed by a statistical and empirical analysis through the logit model. The urban Iganga statistical analysis and logit model brought out reasons for UPE dropout as unemployed household heads, school age pupils, UPE home costs, and low household head education. The rural Iganga statistical analysis and logit model brought out reasons for UPE school dropout as unemployed household heads, pupil over-age, and vulnerability status. The school drop out gave lack of basic needs at school like scholastic materials, poverty, sickness, employment status of parents/guardians and corporal punishments that are given to pupils by teachers were mentioned as reasons why they drop out. Some pupils said sickness can cause some of them to drop out of school especially if they are terminally ill. To address the urban Iganga UPE school dropout it is recommended that: UPE home support for unemployed heads should be mobilized through an urban community casual employment scheme, integrated with UPE awareness seminars, with the monetary equivalent transferred into services benefiting pupil’s schooling, and: UPE should be made compulsory and attractive through legislation, community education and one-to-one household head sensitization to have school age pupils remain in school. To address the rural Iganga UPE school dropout, it is recommended that: a community cost-sharing scheme of UPE household heads be initiated. Their contributions would help raise funds to aid membership of UPE physically disabled pupils, and: the above strategy be integrated with flexible satellite schools to increase the school participation of the over-age.