Pit latrine emptying in Katanga slum, Uganda
Nantongo, Henrietta Basilica
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A lack of effective options in local technology poses challenges when onsite household sanitation facilities are eventually filled to capacity in unplanned settlement areas within Katanga, a slum located in a city suburb of Wandegeya. The main objective of this study is to assess the most effective means of pit latrine emptying in Katanga that is feasible and economically viable. The study will be guided by identifying the different means of pit latrine emptying that are currently used in Katanga slum, examining the challenges for each means identified above and establishing the financial implication of the different emptying means. A sample space of 377 samples was determined using a table by Krijcie Morgan. Sampling of households to participate in the study was randomly done by skipping two houses after every sample. Questionnaires and semi structured interview questions were used to collect primary data from the respondents to determine the type of toilet facility used, number of members in a household, type of technology used when emptying the latrine, frequency of emptying the latrines. Based on the results, the majority of the respondents were males with a response rate of 213 (56.5%) while 164 (43.5%) female respondents participated in the study. Majority of the respondents were aged between 18-34 years (40.32%), those between 35-49 years (30.77%), respondents aged between 50-65 years (22.28%), above 65 years (6.63%). The majority respondents (37.14%) had lived between 5 to 10 years in the slum dwelling. 33.69% of the respondents had lived within the slum dwelling between 1 to 5 years. 15.38% of the respondents had lived within Katanga slum for more than 10 years. 13.79% of the respondents had lived within Katanga for less than 1 year. The majority of the respondents 32.1% used the traditional pit latrine that were easy to empty manually when filled. 30.5% of the respondents used waterborne toilet which are the public toilets that are easily emptied by the cesspool emptiers. 27.1% of the respondents used open defecation as toilets. 10.3% of the respondents used the lined pit latrine which can easily be emptied by the vacuum tankers or cesspool emptiers. In Kimwanyi zone, 25.9% respondents are willing to pay for the emptying services at a fee between 100,000, while those in Busia zone are 44.8 % respondents willing to pay for emptying services at the same fee. 42.9% in Kimwanyi zone are willing to pay for emptying services at a fee between 100,000 and 240,000, while 52.5% respondents from Busia zone are willing to pay for the emptying services at the same fee. 31% respondents from Kimwanyi zone are willing to pay for emptying services at a fee between 240,000 and 400,000, while 2.7% respondents from Busia are willing to pay for emptying services at the same fee. The main pit latrine emptying method used within the slum is cesspool emptiers as seen in the table 71.1%. However, for those who registered use of polythene bags, open defecation, shallow pits, and trenches, 28.9% would employ manual emptying as a method of latrine emptying. Of the 377 respondents; 58(15.4%) respondents that used the traditional pit latrine facility had proper access to them; 11(2.92%) respondents openly defecated in trenches with proper access to them, 115(30.5%) respondents who used water borne toilets had clear access to the facility. The rest of the population 194(51.18%) used facilities that were inaccessible which affected the fecal sludge emptying of the facilities. This is an indication that access roads are a major determinant of pit-latrine emptying services. The government must ensure that they subsidize on the taxation of the vacuum tanks to help the private service providers charge a reasonable fee to the residents in Katanga. A nearby designated dumping area should be set up to help reduce on the improper disposal of the fecal sludge. Policies have been put in place for a standard charge for the emptying services. This protects the residents from exorbitant prices that could be charged by the private service providers. The protective gear for the manual emptiers must be subsidized to enable those that cannot afford the mechanical emptiers be able to empty their facilities even at a small fee.