Sero-prevalence and risk factors of peste des petit ruminants in Nakasongola and Nakaseke districts of Uganda
Lumu, Paul Johnson
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Peste des petits ruminants [PPR] is an acute highly contagious disease of small ruminants with high morbidity and mortality, leading to significant losses to farmers in Uganda. In Uganda, documented information on the epidemiology and risk factors of this disease is rare and there is no nationwide control plan, yet PPRV is known to be endemic. This study set out to investigate the sero-prevalence of PPRV and determine the risk factors associated with occurrence of PPRV seropositivity, by carrying out a cross-sectional study in 2 districts of Uganda, Nakasongola and Nakaseke.A total of 493 blood samples were purposively collected from small ruminants in these two districts. All Sera were screened for PPRV antibodies using a commercial ELISA. Ggeneralized linear models with a modified poisson regression models with robust standard errors were used to test potential risk factors responsible for PPRV seropositvity on farms. . Out of 493 animals tested, the overall PPRV seroprevalence was 29.2% (CI=95%, 25.23 - 33.44). The sero-prevalence of PPRV antibodies varied between districts with Nakasongola recording a higher prevalence of 33.9% (CI=95%, 28.00 - 40.13) as compared to 24.5% (19.24 - 30.37) in Nakaseke. Prevalence of PPRV antibodies was higher in males 73.7 %(CI=95, 48.80 - 90.85) in comparison with females 27.4%(CI=95, 23.46 - 31.68). Sex, husbandry system, shared water sources and introduction of new animals were observed to be significantly associated with PPRV antibodies in goats and sheep (p = <0.05). This study found out that introduction of new animals, communal grazing, shared water source were the most significant risk factors associated with PPRV seroprevalence in the districts of Nakasongola and Nakaseke. t is recommended that community awareness towards limiting mixing of small ruminants whenever there are outbreaks and a strict enforcement of animal movement regulations should be ensured if PPRV control is to be ensured.