Assessment of human and veterinary drug shop sellers’ practices and awareness of antimicrobial resistance : a cross section study in Jinja, Uganda
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Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global problem whereby it can affect any person regardless of age, sex, location among other factors. It occurs naturally, although the misuse of antibiotics in humans, animals and environment accelerate the process. Therefore, this study was done to determine relationship of practices of antimicrobial used with awareness of antimicrobial resistance among human and veterinary drug shop sellers in Jinja district. Snow balling method was used for sampling drug shops of both human and veterinary drugs to identify the respondents. All drug shop sellers in the sub counties of Jinja were considered to participate in the study on consent. 444questionnaires were administered and mystery shopper done on all the participating drug shop sellers. Data was analyzed using descriptive analysis and logistic regression to determine the relationship of practices of antimicrobial use with awareness of AMR by human and veterinary drug shop sellers in Jinja district. In Jinja district 97.7% (434/444) were human drug shops and only 2.3% (6/444) were Veterinary drug shops. Demographic characteristics of drug shop sellers revealed that 60% were full time employees and 85% had attained tertiary level of education. Logistic regression was done to determine the prescription predictors of AMR awareness within the study population and none of the prescription practices had association with the awareness (P>0.05) of AMR by drug shop sellers. Univariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the dispensing predictors with awareness of AMR in Jinja district and only four dispensing practices of drugs with p-vale of <2.0 were then entered in a multivariate logistic regression model and only “Sale of half dose to those who cannot afford” (OR=1.82, 95%CI: 1.01-3.27, P=0.046) had a significant association with awareness of AMR by the drug sellers. Among selected factors known to influence the sale of antibiotic drugs only proximity to the source of supply (OR =1.82, 95% CI: 1.01-3.28) had an association with the awareness AMR. This study revealed that the there was no association with most of the drug shop sellers’ practices with awareness of AMR and generally the practices were found to be improper. Therefore, the regulatory bodies should enforce improvement of prescription and dispensing practices amongst drug shop sellers since they are the custodians of the drugs.