Effectiveness of environmental conservation efforts in addressing food security threats in Rwanda : the case of Rwamagana District
Gasana, Macabazi Laurent
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This research investigates the effectiveness of environmental conservation in addressing food security threats in Rwamagana district of Rwanda. The general aim was to investigate the effectiveness of environmental conservation in addressing threats to food security in Rwamagana district while the specific goals were to find out the major threats to food security in Rwamagana district, to investigate how environmental conservation, improve food security in Rwamagana district and to suggest the possible measures to enhance both adequate environmental conservation and food security in Rwamagana district. This study adopted mixed methods research approach to analyze data from questionnaires and interviews used as tools for data collection. The purposive sampling was adapted to select 94 respondents. Data collection tools were questionnaires, interviews, and documentation while data was analyzed by using quantitative and qualitative analysis. About the results of first objective which was to assess the major threats to food security in Rwamagana district. The main findings revealed that people suffered from food insecurity due to inability to feed themselves, overpopulation while other like land degradation and heavy dry are the primary agent on food insecurity in Rwamagana district. Concerning the second objective that was aimed at assessing the environmental conservation practice that improved more food security in Rwamagana district, the results from finding revealed that radical terracing, agroforestry, land use consolidation, tree planting, home garden construction and creation of anti-erosion fosses were the mainly practiced for enhancing environmental conservation and food security in Rwamagana district. The challenges in improving environmental conservation in Rwamagana district are deforestation, logging and fuelwood, poor agricultural practices, overpopulation and poverty were proved as the major challenges of environmental conservation and food security in Rwamagana district. The study discovered that the strategies to improve food security and environmental conservation are encouraging fire woods, practice of agroforestry, and sensitization of people about soil or land protection, extending radical terracing in the whole sectors. Basing on the above findings, the researcher found that environmental conservation improved more food security in Rwamagana district by enabling people to have access on food at the lower prices, increase in food production and reduction of malnutrition in Rwamagana district.