Bacterial pathogens associated with febrile conditions and their antimicrobial sensitivity pattern in children from Mbale hospital, Uganda
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Bacterial pathogens constitute a significant public health problem and are important cause of morbidity and mortality in febrile patients. The study was to determine the antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of bacterial pathogens associated with fever in children in Mbale Hospital. This cross-sectional study involved 227 children, was conducted from January to April 2017. Children with fever were selected; whole blood was obtained for preparing blood slides and bacterial cultures. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done on pure culture isolates employing disc-diffusion method for the commonly used antibiotics. The data were analyzed by using SPSS version 21 and the results were summarized as tables and graphs. Out of 227 children, 121 (53.3%) and 106 (46.7%) were females and males, respectively. 184 (81.1%) were children age group of ≤5. The median age (IQR) was 6 (1-12). The prevalence of malaria infection due to P. falciparum was 79 (34.8%). 121 female 45(19.8%) and 34(15.0%) male children had malaria, while overall 27 (11.9%) samples had bacterial growth, culture positives results for females and males were 10 (4.4%) and 17 (7.5%), respectively. Bacteremia was highest among age group ≤5 21 (77.8%) and 66 (83.5%) of them had P. falciparum. The predominant bacteria isolated were Staphylococcus aureus 18 (56%), Streptococcus pneumoniae 6 (19%), Pseudomonas spp 6 (19%) and Enterobacter aerogenes 2 (6%) The gram positive and gram negative bacteria constituted 24 (75%) and 8 (25%) of the culture isolates; respectively. both single microorganisms 22 (81.5%) and polymicrobial agents 5(18.5%) were isolated and Co-infections between malaria and bacteria were observed in 3.8% (n=79) patients. The isolates showed high rates of resistance to most antibiotics tested. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common pathogen isolated. Further extensive studies to identify the sensitivity pattern and practicing the rationale use of antibiotics are recommended. Key words: Antibiotics; Antibiotics sensitivity testing, Bacteria, Bacterial growth, Malaria, P. falciparum Co-infection.