Prevalence and factors associated with Diarrhoea among children under-five and household adaptation strategies in flash flood prone Bwaise II and III parishes, Kawempe Division, Kampala Uganda
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Introduction: Diarrhoea remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality among U5 in Uganda with prevalence of 20%. Bwaise has poor sanitation and hygiene coupled with frequent flash floods have increased prevalence of diarrheal diseases, hence residents adapted by building raised pit latrines to alleviate the burden of diarrhoea among U5. Objective: To determine the prevalence and factors associated with diarrhoea among U5 and household adaptation strategies in Bwaise II and III parishes prone to flash floods in Kawempe division, Kampala. Methods: Cross sectional study was conducted in Bwaise parishes II and III of Kawempe division, significantly vulnerable to floods. The study population was children U5. The sample size was 300 respondents with diarrhoea among U5 being the outcome variable. Only quantitative methods were used. Logistic regression model was used to determine factors associated with diarrhoea among U5. Data was entered using Epidata version. 3.1, and analysed using Stata version 13. Results: More than half 59.3% (178/300) of U5 had a diarrheal episode. The odds of diarrhoea among U5 were; 2.62 times greater with >2 children U5 [aOR=2.62, 95% CI= (2.38-17.84)], 2.18 times higher with uncovered drinking water [aOR=2.18, 95% (CI=1.07-4.42)], 15.21 times higher in lacking hand washing facility [aOR=15.21, 95% (CI=4.04 - 57.25)], 0.4 times lower among U5 where soap isn’t used in washing baby after defecation [aOR = 0.40, 95% CI (0.16 - 0.94)], and 9.72 times higher among U5 defecating in the polythene bag [aOR=9.72, 95% (C1=1.37-69.02)]. Majority 93.7% (281/300) maintained hygiene and 87.3% (262/300) boil drinking water Conclusion: The prevalence of diarrhoea among U5 was higher than the national average. Significant predictors of diarrhoea among U5 include; many children U5 in the household, uncovered drinking water containers, unsafe disposal of children’s faeces, lack of hand washing facility, unwashed hands with or without soap and higher frequency of flash floods. Majority adapted by maintaining hygiene and boiling drinking water. The Ministry of Health should promote hand-washing coverage to prevention diarrhoea among U5 in Bwaise.