Social-cultural values that influence gendered decisions for pork consumption: A case study of pork retail outlets in Kampala District
Nabwire, Mutambo Irene
MetadataShow full item record
Globally, pork is the most extensively consumed meat due to its rich nutritional value: protein, iron, zinc, potassium, magnesium and vitamins (Murphy et al, 2014, Nguyen et al, 2015& UBOS, 2015). Consuming pork is important for the health of both men and women. However, worldwide, women eat less pork than men (Donoghue, 2008, Jabbar et al, 2010, Lin et al, 2006&Prattala et al, 2007), and this is not different from consumer behavior in Uganda especially in the districts of Kampala, Mukono, Kamuli, Lira, Hoima and Masaka (Kabahenda, 2015& Roesel et al, 2013). The reasons why pork consumption is gendered are largely unknown. The aim of this study was therefore to explore the reasons why pork consumption is gendered. The study focused on two possible main reasons: attributes of retailer outlets and gendered perceptions associated with pork consumption. The study also explored openly other possible reasons behind the gendered consumption of pork. The findings can help to better understand gender differences of pork consumption and contribute to the formulation of gender responsive consumer policies.Findings from this research may provide important insights to drive health benefits campaigns about pork consumption to increase the intake of pork amongst women, men and children. This way, achievement of public health goals could be facilitated. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with 116 pork consumers (64 males and 52 females) aged between 15 and 78 years, 20 key informants who were the pork retail outlet owners/manager or supervisors (10 women and 10 men) in 3 divisions (Makindye, Nakawa and Lubaga) of Kampala. Additionally, six focus group discussions were conducted separately for men and women each consisting of seven to twelve pork consumers. A content analysis was performed on the transcripts of these interviews and discussions. Both men and women had a perception that pork nutritional value improves immune system especially among people living with HIV/AIDS. This was the most important reason for consuming pork. Male respondents said they consume pork because it tastes good, it relieves hangover, and get together (discuss business and everyday life issues). Female respondents stated that they consume pork because it tastes good and is tender meat. Both male and female respondents said that the hygiene (cleanliness) of pork retail outlet environment, the waiters and waitresses was the most important attribute for choosing pork retail outlet. Female respondents looked also for other attributes of retailers including proximityof the pork retail outlet to their homes, security (open and free of attack and harassment), good customer care (friendliness, respect and speed of services) and quality of pork (well dried pork). On the other hand, male respondents looked for retail outlet that have a relaxed setting that allow privacy, sell pork on credit, offer low prices, and that use accurate weighing scales. The findings also show that women’s access to pork retailers was restricted by women’s reproductive roles (child nurturing and other domestic work within a household), time deficit due to vulnerability of risks associated to women (like kidnaps, rape and sometimes death) and limited financial resources due to limited access and control of property. Men were not affected by such restrictions and hence were free to consume pork anywhere at any time. Male respondents also perceived and stereotyped (unaccompanied) women who consume pork in pork retail outlets as greedy, irresponsible and prostitutes. These findings shed light on how gendered identities and stereotypes permeate pork consumption in Uganda.