Household Division of Labour of Roles in Rearing Black Soldier Flies: A case Study of Female and Male Farmers in Mukono District.
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Latest innovations in agriculture through science and technological innovations have been key in government’s effort to overcome food security, malnutrition and poverty at household level. Evidence of these efforts can be traced in governments’ commitment to introduce labor saving technologies and gender responsive mechanization in agriculture, (NDP11, 2015, p.103); enhancing technological reforms in its Vision 2040, p.47 and commitment to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs, 1, &2). Rearing insects like Black Soldier Flies (BSFs) has been encouraged globally to farmers as one of the latest innovations in agriculture to provide a cheaper alternative protein source in the feed for poultry and fish, (FAO,2014). Due to lack of information on role specification brought by this technology for female and male farmers, this study embarked on examining gender roles division in the rearing of BSFs within households in Mukono District. The study was guided by the socialist and Marxist theories to indicate that specification of roles is determined through patriarchal and economic setting of the society. The “intersection between patriarchy and capitalism create structural relationships that reinforce differences in the positioning of roles within households” (Casalanti & Bailey, 2014, and March,Smith, & Mukhopadhyay, 1999). The socialist institutional assessment of Naila Kabeer was applied to understand how household norms and activities influence role allocation for rearing black soldier flies. The theory enabled the understanding of the basis of role allocation, and analysis of the implications of these roles for female and male farmers rearing BSFs. The study used qualitative methods in a case study design, gathering information through key informant interviews, focus group discussions and observation. Data analysis was done thematically, with themes drawn inductively through a computer based software N’vivo. The first objective of this study examined the productive, reproductive and community roles of female and male farmers rearing BSFs. Findings from this objective indicate that reproductive roles take up the highest majority of roles for BSF rearing representative of 79%, 17% for community roles, and 4% for the productive roles. The 79% of reproductive roles is due to both female and male farmer participation in BSF production to earn income (Productive role) in the value chain for fish and poultry production. Male farmer involvement indicates behavioural change towards household reproductive roles. The second objective examined how the roles for BSF rearing are determined for female and male farmers. The major finding indicates that the household type determines the BSF rearing roles for female and male farmers. The last objective analyzed the implication of the BSF rearing roles on female and male farmers. Findings reveal that new practical and strategic needs have emerged for female and male farmers. By the end of this study, division of roles for BSF rearing have been specified through labour provision by females and males. The study recommends that female and male farmer tailored technology should be invested in by policy makers and practitioners because farmers are endowers of knowledge and bearers of adoption. Farmers should invest more time as capital for BSF rearing to as to boost BSF feed production because it is now a certified product by UNBS. INSFEED project should follow-up and continue to document new rearing practices from the female and male farmers for future use on new farmers