Locative enclitics in Luganda: Form and meaning
‘Locative enclitics in Luganda: Form and Meaning’ is a study which describes the syntactic contexts and use of locative enclitics in Luganda. Locative enclitics are words which cannot stand alone but are attached on a verb to make meaning. Their status is ambiguous between free word and affix, hence motivating their analysis as enclitics. The enclitics are attached on the post final position of their hosts. The major aim of this study is to examine the morphosyntax of locative enclitics while encompassing their meaning, both locative and non-locative. The study looks at verbal locative enclitics only but locative enclitics also appear with other word categories in Luganda. This study is descriptive, with a qualitative approach. The data used in this study was collected through reviewing documents in Luganda - novels and plays and also the spoken discourses. The study shows that enclitics occur in several syntactic contexts, for example in locative inversion constructions where they are obligatory, and the absence of the enclitic in this construction leads to ungrammaticality of the construction. Enclitics also occur with locative phrases, where they trigger locative noun agreement. Enclitics also occur with the object marker, in which case an enclitic rules out ambiguity and only the locative interpretation is possible. Luganda does not use locative object markers but uses the locative enclitics which perform a semantic function in this case. Enclitics in Luganda can appear on any kind of verb, and it is possible for two enclitics to appear on the same verb, serving different functions. When a locative phrase is an argument it can be pronominalized on the verb. However, when it is an adjunct, it can only be pronominalized when the applicative suffix is attached on the verb. The enclitic in Luganda serves many nonlocative discourse pragmatic functions which include showing urgency, politeness, showing the idea of ‘instead of’ and also emphasis. It has also been observed that enclitics are widely used in urban youth languages (‘Luyaaye’) but this was not the focus of the current study. The results from the study offer explanations of key areas of syntax, morphology and pragmatics relating to the form and functions of locative enclitics and the whole system of locative marking in Luganda and other Bantu languages.