Factors associated with fruit and vegetable intake among adults in Kasubi Parish, Kampala
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Introduction and background: Regular and optimal consumption of fruit and vegetables is associated with promoting good health and preventing or alleviating diseases. Globally there is low consumption of fruit and vegetables which accounts for about 2.4 million deaths, of which 14%, 11% and 9% are associated with gastrointestinal cancer, heart disease and stroke, respectively. Increased consumption can avert death of up to 2.7 million lives world over. About 27% of deaths in sub-Saharan Africa are attributed to low consumption of FV and it is the main contributor to micronutrient deficiency in the developing world. Uganda has a favourable climate for horticulture and a wide variety and supply of fruits and vegetables. It is estimated that 89% of Ugandan households consume fruits and vegetables, however this only accounts for 63.5 Kg per person per annum. This intake is far less than half the international daily requirement of 146 Kg per person per annum. Objective: The study aimed at establishing the factors associated with the intake of fruits and vegetables among the adults in Kasubi Parish of Lubaga North subdivision of Kampala District in Uganda. Methodology: We conducted a cross-sectional household- based study. Quantitative and qualitative data was collected using questionnaires and focus group discussion guides. Quantitative data was managed using EpiData 3.0 and analysed using STATA version 12.0 and Microsoft Office Excel 2007; the univariate, bivariate and multivariate analysis results were presented in tables, pie charts and graphs. The qualitative data was summarised in themes supported by key verbatim quotes. Results: A total of 395 participants took part in the study of which 56% were male. The mean age of participants was 29.6 (SD= 9.2) years. Only 12.7% had adequate fruit and vegetable intake. The mean number of grams of Fruits and vegetables intake per day was 254.3 (SD=124.9). Fruit and vegetable preference (AOR 5.5, CI 2.33 - 13.35, p ˂ 0.00), marital status (AOR 10.9, CI 1.39 - 86.30, p ˂ 0.02), and economic status (AOR 0.3, CI 0.11 - 0 93, p < 0.04) were significantly associated with fruit and vegetable intake. Conclusion: Fruit and vegetable intake was found to be inadequate among adults in Kasubi Parish and greatly affected by insufficient fruit and vegetable quantity, having less than 4 times frequency of fruit and vegetable intake in a day and taking less than 16 varieties of fruits and vegetables. The three causes result mainly from residents’ economic constraints.