Deafness, parental bonding, self-esteem and depression among adolescents.
The study compared the quality of perceived maternal bonding style, level of self esteem and depression in deaf and hearing adolescents, and also examined the relationship between perceived maternal bonding, self esteem and depression. A total of 160 secondary school deaf and hearing adolescents enrolled in the study. Participants completed measures of parental bonding style, self esteem and depression. Results indicated that more deaf than hearing adolescents perceived their mothers as employing affection less control bonding style. The deaf adolescents had significantly lower self esteem and more depression than hearing adolescents, though the depression was mainly in the mild degree category. In both groups depression was significantly associated with affection less control maternal bonding style (low care, high over protection). In conclusion deafness, perceptions of low maternal care and high over protection and low self esteem predicted depression.