Effects of land tenure on physical planning in Uganda: a case of Kampala City
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There are different land tenure systems in Kampala city with competing legitimacy claims under the different systems. Despite the laws and regulations put in place to guide and regulate physical planning, planned developments continue to co-exist with informal and illegal developments and the situation seems to vary from one tenure system to another. The general objective of the study was to assess the effects of land tenure systems on physical planning in Kampala City. The specific objectives included; assessing the level of physical planning and development of land under different land tenure systems, determining the relationship between land tenure systems and physical planning in Kampala City, identifying the implications of land tenure systems on physical planning of Kampala city and proposing viable options aimed at counteracting land tenure constraints to effective physical planning. The researcher collected data from 80 respondents of whom 25 were purposively selected and 55 were randomly selected from land owners in Kasubi and Kawempe. Data was collected using a combination of in-depth interviews and questionnaires as well as analysis of secondary data sources. The findings of the study show that KCC lacks commitment and financial resources to compensate land owners whose land is affected by proposed developments as such most structure and detailed plans are not implemented. The findings also showed that the majority of developments in Kampala do not conform to the city’s development plans, building rules and regulations. The researcher also discovered that physical planning on public land is more effective as opposed to physical planning on privately held land. Further, the study results show that the most significant land tenure constraints to physical planning is landlords holding unto prime land and resisting KCC’s planning decisions. The researcher therefore concluded that overall, planning of land under the different tenure systems is not effective. Tenure insecurity and lack of enforcement of planning regulations are highly responsible for the poor quality of planning in the City. The researcher made recommendations based on the findings of the study and these included; designing an effective and sound land registration and titling system, introducing of land taxation, and attaching more emphasis on the physical planning function of KCC. The researcher also proposes areas for further research.