Assessment of borehole water quality and consumption in Yei County South Sudan.
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The health risks associated with individual borehole water quality and quantity consumed is not clear for a third world nation like South Sudan. Spatial distribution of Physico-chemical and microbiological parameters were assessed from the rural and urban areas of Yei County in South Sudan. Water samples were collected and analyzed in the Wet Season (Mid June to July 2011) and Dry Season (February to Mid-March 2012). Factors affecting daily per capita borehole water consumption were also assessed. The results showed that Physico-chemical parameters; pH ranged from (6.0-8.1) in the dry season, (5.5 – 7.5) wet season. Others all in (mg/L); TDS varied from (14 – 309) in dry season, (18.3-321.1) wet season; NO3-N ranged from (0.000 – 3.8) in the dry season, (0.000-4.0) wet season, CaCO3 (12-115) in the dry season, (12-111) wet season, Fe2+ ranged from (0.001 – 0.1) in the dry season, (0.001-0.1) wet season and F- ranged from (0.12-2.01) in the dry season, (0.19-2.2) wet season. Micro-biological parameters; TC (cfu/100ml) ranged from (0-70) in the dry season, (0-100) wet season. FC ranged from (0-46) in the dry season, (0-75) wet season. All values increased in the wet season apart from pH that decreased. Urban boreholes produced slightly more acidic water than rural boreholes. Physico-Chemical parameters were not significantly affected by changing seasons (p>0.05) but had a significant effect on pH, TC and FC in the urban (p<0.05), while there was no significant effect in the rural (p>0.05). TDS, NO3-N, CaCO3, and F- values were all far below the WHO standards of drinking water in both seasons with all significance levels (<0.01). TC and FC in drinking water varied significantly from WHO values (p<0.05). Rural areas had no intra variations in all the parameters for both seasons (p>0.05). There were significant inter variations in pH, TDS, NO3-N, CaCO3, F-, TC and FC in both dry and wet seasons, all significances were (p<0.05). Distance from borehole, household size and changing seasons significantly affected daily per capita borehole water consumption (p<0.05). Consumption in Yei county varied from (4 – 23.8) in the wet season, (6.7 -29.5) dry season. Urban areas had higher amounts of consumption compared to rural. Households <500m from boreholes had higher daily per capita water consumption than those >1km away. It is therefore recommended to treat boreholes with pollution levels beyond the WHO limits. Survey of borehole drilling sites must be done prior to drilling to prevent areas of potential hazard to groundwater. There is need to increase accessibility to water resources.