The association of high serum estradiol level with breast cancer women at Mulago Hospital
Awio, John Peter
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Background: Breast cancer is one of the top three common types of cancers diagnosed in women. In Uganda breast cancer is the third commonest cancer in women after cancer of the cervix and Kaposi's sarcoma. The incidence of breast cancer in Uganda has nearly tripled from 11:100,000 in 1961 to 31:100,000 in 2006. High serum estradiol ≥8.03pg/ml has 2.9 to 3.6 relative risks for breast cancer compare to those on the lower quartile ≤2.29pg/ml. Objective: The research was conducted to establish whether high serum estradiol is associated with breast cancer amongst Ugandan women seen in Mulago Hospital. Methods: A case control study was conducted in an eight month period with patients confirmed with breast cancer as cases and those without breast lesion as controls. The sampling was consecutive and interview questionnaire was administered, clinical examination was done, and blood taken for estradiol level. The main predictor was estradiol levels and the outcome was confirmed breast cancer. Data was analyzed using SPSS V16.0 using logistic regression model, and a P- value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results The median estrogen levels in Ugandan women is 43.2 pg/ml with interquartile range of 18.48 to 75.8 pg/ml, the value was higher in premenopausal women and those without cancer but with no statistical significance. Factors associated with breast cancer disease included the body mass index, age at menarche, history of ever been diagnosed with benign breast disease and alcohol intake. No association was found between level of estradiol and the risk for breast cancer disease. Conclusion The median estrogen levels in Ugandan women is 43.2 pg/ml. No association was found between level of estradiol and the risk for breast cancer disease. There is need to identify factors that can be used in early screening or administering preventive interventions among the Ugandan population so as to reduce the burden of breast cancer disease in the population.