Brucellosis at human- domestic animal interface in Greater Bahr El-Ghazal States, South Sudan
Yajj, Nuol Aywel Madut
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Backgroung: Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Brucella spp, mainly Brucella abortus, Brucella melitensis, Brucella suis and Brucella canis. It is endemic in the Mediterranean basin, Middle East countries. In South Sudan, human brucellosis was reported in Terekeka Central Equatorial State in Terekeka health facility. Lack of knowledge about brucellosis may affect the health-seeking behavior of patients, thus leading to sustained infection and transmission in these settings. Aim: To assess brucellosis prevalence among humans and domestic animals in pastoral settings in post conflict and during political instability in Greater Bahr el Ghazal States, South Sudan. Methods: A cross sectional study design was used. The study was divided into substudies, Survey of brucellosis prevalence among animals brought for slaughtering (Sub-study one-Manuscript I), Prevalence of brucellosis among slaughterhouse workers (Sub-study Two-Manuscript II), prevalence of brucellosis among cattle and herders in the cattle caomps (Sub-study Three-Article I), Epidemiology of zoonotic Brucellosis in Greater Bahr el Ghazal states, South Sudan was conducted (Sub-study IV-Manuscript III). Prevalence of brucellosis among patients attending Out-patients department of Wau referral hospital (Sub-study IV-Article II). Data was collected using standardized questionnaires. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 24 and Stata 12 software. The level of significance of 95% was used during the analysis. Results: Slaughterhouses were poorly managed and lack basic infrastructures. Seroprevalence of Brucellosis was high among abattoir workers, especially in Wau State. The prevalence of brucellosis in Greater Bahr el Ghazal State is higher than that reported in other parts of Africa.Control of the disease in animals, by annual surveillance, a dministering vaccination, and culling of brucella positive animals. One xv health programme should be implemented in the region to mitigate the disease by disseminating public a wareness advocacy and surveillance programmes. Conclusion: Lack of control measures for the disease, lack of awareness about brucellosis and other zoonotic diseases. Brucellosis is common among febrile patients attending (OPD) in Wau hospital. Our study showed that consumption of infected animal products such as raw milk, meat and urine play major role in transmission of Brucellosis in the communities. Brucellosis infection is associated with factors like age, herd size, lactation, health status, hygroma and history of abortion. There is need for mandatory routine testing for Brucellosis among herders and other high risk groups. Control will be best accomplished at the animal level since people have a social and cultural tendency to consume raw animal products.