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Prevalence and factors associated with oral candidiasis in severely malnourished children admitted to Mwanamugimu Nutritional Unit, Mulago Hospital

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dc.contributor.author Tumwine, Daniel
dc.date.accessioned 2013-03-22T09:49:04Z
dc.date.available 2013-03-22T09:49:04Z
dc.date.issued 2009-05
dc.identifier.uri
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10570/1249
dc.description A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Master of Medicine in Paediatrics and Child Health of Makerere University. en_US
dc.description.abstract Background: Malnutrition, the most common cause of immunodeficiency worldwide is responsible for 5.3 million deaths of under 5 year olds. It remains the most important risk factor for the burden of disease in developing countries. Oral candidiasis is common in immunosuppressive states especially individuals infected with HIV/AIDS and severe malnutrition. Despite evidence that oral candidiasis prolongs hospital stay and predisposes to bacterial infection in the severely malnourished child there is a dearth of information concerning the association between oral candidiasis and malnutrition. Objective: To describe the prevalence of, and study the factors associated with the development of oral candidiasis infection among children, 2-59 months, who are severely malnourished and admitted to MNU. Method: This was a cross sectional study of one hundred and sixty two severely malnourished children, 6-59 months. Presence of oral candidiasis and other clinical and laboratory characteristics were determined at enrollment. Factors associated with the development of oral candidiasis were elicited. Results: One hundred and sixty two patients with severe acute malnutrition were recruited, and of these, 32.1% (n= 52) had oral candidasis. We found that having a history of fever for less than one month [OR 2.54 (1.07-6.04), p= 0.035], a history of fever for more than one month [OR 4.74 (1.48-15.18), p= 0.009], a history of oral candidiasis [OR 2.81 (1.29-6.09), p=0.009], history of antibiotic use [OR 5.66 (1.98-16.16) p=0.000], ottorhea [OR 3.54 (1.40-8.99), p=0.044) having signs of dehydration, [OR 2.57 (1.12-5.91) p=0.044] were independently associated with oral candidiasis. Severe CD4+ immunosupression, [OR 3.01 (1.26-7.17), p=0.009], though significant on univariate analysis was not independently signficant. Almost half (45.7%, n= 74) of respondents reported a previous history of oral candidiasis, with 37.8% (n=28) of these reporting oral candidiaisis more than once. Conclusions: With a prevalence of 32.1% oral candidiasis remains an important disease entity in children with severe acute malnutrition. The factors independently associated with oral candidiasis among children aged 2-59 months admitted with severe acute malnutrition to Mwanamugimu Nutritional Unit include a prior history of antibiotic use within the last 3 weeks, prior history of oral candidiasis, signs of dehydration and otorrhea. Previous history of oral antibiotic use among children aged 2-59 months admitted with severe acute malnutrition to Mwanamugimu Nutritional Unit is more likely to be associated with oral candidiasis compared to CD4+ immunosupression. Recurrent oral candidiasis is common. Recommendations: Given the high incidence of oral candidiasis and its strong association with prior use of antibiotics in severely malnourished children, the rampant use of oral antibiotics needs to be regulated. Well designed studies to find out the antifungal drug sensitivity patterns should be carried out in the view of high recurrence rates. en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.subject Oral candidiasis en_US
dc.subject Mulnutrition en_US
dc.subject Malnourished children en_US
dc.title Prevalence and factors associated with oral candidiasis in severely malnourished children admitted to Mwanamugimu Nutritional Unit, Mulago Hospital en_US
dc.type Thesis, masters en_US


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